Smith Fellows
Smith Fellow


Restoration projects often focus on reintroducing a set of target plant or animal species. Implicit in this approach is the expectation that other species and their functional interactions within the system will regenerate without intervention. Many plant species depend on pollination by insects for reproduction, but this interaction has been largely ignored in restoration planning. In addition to providing key pollination services, many pollinators interact with multiple habitats, so that they represent a valuable set of species to investigate restoration of critical ecosystem function and the dependence of this function on surrounding landscape. I will examine the restoration of insect pollination species, in particular bees, and pollination within restored riparian sites managed by TNC along the Sacramento River, CA. Bee faunas and pollination services will be compared at experimental plant arrays placed in restored habitats, natural remnants and in commercial orchards, which comprise most of the surrounding agricultural matrix. I will also determine the dependence of a subset of bee species on floral resources from the agricultural landscape by identifying the source of pollens they collect. Reliance on pollen from agricultural sites establishes a link between restored habitats and surrounding matrix. These data will inform management decisions for restoring and maintaining pollinators and pollination in agricultural-natural systems and also provide concrete recommendations for the conservation management within the Sacramento River System.


Williams N. M. and Tepedino, V. J. 2002. Consistent mixing of near and distant resources in foraging bouts by the solitary mason bee Osmia lignaria. Behavioral Ecology 14(1): XXX

Williams N. M. 2003. Use of novel pollen species by specialist and generalist solitary bees (Hymenoptera Megachilidae). Oecologia 134: 228-237.

Kremen, C., Williams, N. M. and Thorp, R. W. 2002. Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99: 16812-16816

Kremen, C., R.L. Bugg, N. Nicola, S.A. Smith, R.W. Thorp , and N.M. Williams. 2003. Native bees, native plants and crop pollination in California. Fremontia 31(1), in press.

Winfree, R. Dushoff, J. Budny, R. Williams, N. M. and Kremen, C. In review. A new habitat proximity index for ecological studies.